wildlife conservation

What Are The Types Of Wildlife Conservation

Wildlife referred to wild animal species, but it has now broadened to include all creatures that reproduce or thrive in the wild without being artificially introduced. It is a symbol of uniqueness and excellence for each country

Values and scope (Why conserve Wildlife?)

Wildlife must be conserved because of the following reasons:

  • Life security and surety
  • Social, cultural, and commercial values
  • For the stability of an ecosystem
  • Direct role in the economy of a country
  • Indicators for any short term and enduring changes in nature such as in understanding seismology and climate change in association with wildlife behavior respectively
  • Recreational aspects of tourism and research etc.
  • Scope in space science research i.e. to study life on exo-planets.

Need for the application of conservation techniques (Threats to wildlife)

Habitat degradation, fragmentation, destruction, poaching, overexploitation, climate change, and pollution are all major hazards to wildlife. Humans are the greatest threat to animals. According to the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN), 27,000 of the species examined are under the serious threat of extinction.            

Some ecologists believe that the planet has lost 90% of its biodiversity since the beginning of the Holocene epoch, which is why, since the 1950s, most ecologists have concluded that we are in the middle of the sixth mass extinction and that human existence would be impossible without nature.

As a result, wildlife research and conservation are among the most urgent issues to be addressed in global issues.

Wildlife Management

Wildlife Management

Wildlife management is the achieving objectives by modifying and/or maintaining wildlife habitats and populations to preserve and enhance the life quality on this planet. The father of wildlife ecology, Aldo Leopold (1887-1948), is widely regarded.

He first established the concept of “land ethics,” which asks for an ethical, loving relationship between humans and nature, and then offered the concepts of wildlife preservation and conservation as wildlife management strategies.

Types of Wildlife conservation

There are the following two types of wildlife conservation

1. In situ

In-situ is a Latin term that means “on-site” or “in position.” “In-situ conservation” means preserving a species in its natural environment, as well as the preservation and recovery of viable populations of species in their natural habitat. Examples include:

Protected areas

Protected areas

It is a government-designated geographical space or territory for the in-situ conservation of wilderness regions in protected areas. Technically, all activities are permitted except for those that are prohibited. There are three categories of protected areas based on the activities that are permitted.

National Park

The Yellowstone National Park is the world’s oldest national park, located in the United States. Northeast Greenland National Park is the world’s largest national park. Pakistan’s Central Karakorum national park contains the world’s second-highest and most magnificent peak K2.

Game Reserves

Hunting is allowed on a special permit issued by a Government body

Wildlife century

No activity is allowed in this region

For example, the Taunsa Wildlife Century in Pakistan was established to protect the Indus Blind Dolphin, which is found exclusively in Pakistan’s Indus River and is endangered.

Reserved Forests

Reserved Forests

It’s more of an archival tool. All activities are prohibited in designated forests, except for those that are permitted.

In the field of wildlife conservation, in-situ conservation is formally known as the most effective, dependable, cost-efficient, and simple strategy since it allows more species to be protected with less effort because the focus is on ecosystem, habitat, and environment.

For example, tree kangaroo conservation in Papua New Guinea has resulted in the conservation of numerous species. Therefore, when population levels are too low or a lethal disease is present, in-situ conservation is less successful and time consuming; however, in this scenario, ex-situ conservation is more critical.

2. Ex-situ

It is the preservation of plant samples outside of their natural habitat, whether as a full plant, seed, pollen, tissue, or cell culture. Examples include:

Safari Parks

These are for a variety of purposes, including recreation and tourism, as well as wildlife conservation. A safari park is a zoo-like commercial tourism destination built intentionally close to the natural environment, where visitors can drive their cars or ride in vehicles provided by the authority to see freely ranging animals.

Botanical and zoological gardens

Botanical and zoological gardens

Zoological and botanical gardens are wildlife preservation tools as well as public displays of single species for entertainment and education. They vary from safaris in that the species are kept in cages in zoological and botanical gardens.


Aquariums are either a container for keeping freshwater or marine aquatic species or a place where a collection of aquatic organisms is shown or studied. These are critical for the conservation of some critically endangered aquatic species in the wild.

Ex-situ conservation is particularly effective for species on the edge of extinction. Ex-situ conservation is recognized to be more expensive, difficult, and risky than animal conservation due to both modifying and non-modifying wildlife behaviors.

Some species, such as the bird Hornbill, are unable to adapt to artificial surroundings; but, once a wildlife species adapted to an ex-situ environment and through conservation measures, when released into the wild, they exhibit distinct behavior and become vulnerable because of more competition in-situ environment.

More tools for wildlife conservation.

As a wildlife ecologist and field expert, I’ve made the following observations.

Education and research

Wildlife education at the grass-roots level is critical because it stimulates thought, offers updated knowledge, and piques the curiosity of the next generation, allowing them to better understand the relevance and care for wildlife in the biosphere.

Because the education levels in some developing nations, such as Pakistan, Bangladesh, Nepal, and Sri Lanka, are not comparable to those in rich countries, there is a region wise gap in the study of regional variety, difficulties, and adaptations, which must be obvious to settle on preferences.

For better research collaboration, there has to be a collaborative network of wildlife education and research with additional scholarships, research grants, and scholar exchange programmers.

Awareness and moral ethics

There are four most successful strategies to raise community knowledge and passion for wildlife.

  • Wildlife education from the grass root level
  • Special lectures and seminars
  • Through Print, mass, and social media
  • Applying conservation traditions properly commemorate for instance celebration of wildlife related days on national and global scale with extreme passion. Such as:
  • World wildlife day                                 
  • Wildlife conservation day                              
  • World Wildlife week                           

Global Efforts for wildlife

Global Efforts for wildlife

Species conservation will undoubtedly not be dependent on the determination of a single country, but rather on worldwide attention, even though global NGOs are actively striving to conserve wildlife. 

IUCN- International Union for the Conservation of Nature

It is the most comprehensive collection of all global wildlife ranked by population density or conservation status formed in 1964.The IUCN Red List Categories are intended to be a simple framework for classifying wildlife species at high risk of extinction around the world.

WWF-World Wide Fund for nature

This NGO is particularly committed to wildlife conservation. It collaborates with academics and experts who study nature and wildlife.

CITES = The Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora

It is a treaty between states on a global scale. Its goal is to ensure that international trade in wild animal and plant specimens does not jeopardize the species’ survival. On March 3, 1973, representatives from 80 countries met in Washington, D.C., United States of America, to finalize the Convention’s daft.

CBD = Convention on Biological Diversity     


  • The preservation of biological diversity is important (or biodiversity)
  • The long-term viability of its components
  • The equal distribution of advantages is derived from genetic resources.

Main objective;

Its purpose is to build national policies for biological diversity protection and sustainable use, and it is frequently regarded as an important document in the field of sustainable development.

There are two main supplementary agreements of CBD     

1. Nagoya Protocol

The Nagoya Protocol’s purpose is to offer an international, legally enforceable framework for future transparent and successful implementation of the ABS idea at the regional and national levels.

2. Cartagena Protocol

The “Cartagena Protocol on Bio-safety to the Convention on Biological Diversity” is an international agreement ensuring the safe handling, transportation, and use of living modified organisms (LMOs) resulting from modern biotechnology that may have negative effects on biological diversity, and human health risks.

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